Judaism first appeared in or around 587 B., in the Egyptian/Mesopotamian region. Judaism made its start as "Yahwehism", the religion of the Israelites. In contrast with modern day Judaism, you can find many similarities, yet there are some major differences. The Israelites were not monotheists, rather they were henotheists, believing in the existence of other gods, but only worshipping one. Most Jews today are strict monotheists, believing in the existence of only one god. The Israelites also only studied and followed the Book of Deuteronomy. Jews today generally follow many of the twenty-four books that make up the Tanak .
The Pharisees and the Sadducees, though both considered Biblical Judaism, differ in several ways. The Pharisees sometimes called the "Separate Ones", follow the Torah and believe in the "Messiah". The Pharisees also believe in the "Final Judgement" and "resurrection of the dead". After this final judgement, those who were of good faith and had atonement will go on to "Paradise", yet those who were evil will go on to "Gehenna" or hell. The Sadducees on the other hand, do not believe in any sort of afterlife. For the Sadducees there is no "Final Judgement", no Messiah and no resurrections. .
Around 70 C.E., the Israelites who had been practicing Judaism under Roman rule came under heavy speculation. The Roman's had placed taxes on Jews and taken money from Jewish temples and this created an outrage. Many Jews began a revolt and after much bloodshed and warfare, the Roman's overtook the Jews and destroyed a Jerusalem temple. In about 130 C.E., the Roman's exiled the Jews from Jerusalem. .
The Kabbalah is a more mystical and mysterious study of Judaism. In one of the writings of the Kabbalah, you find something similar to mathematical equations, which are used for deciphering scriptures. Also when studying the Kabbalah, the focus is placed on the powers of the mind and body, much like varying forms of yoga.