Rwanda is an east African country which lies between Uganda and Burundi. First inhabited in the pre-colonial times by the Twa, Hutu, and Tutsi, Rwanda was ruled by its own native kings. European explorers often came close to Rwanda in the nineteenth century, but it wasn"t until 1894 that the first European actually entered the borders. However, the 1885 Conference of Berlin declared the area of both Rwanda and Burundi under German control, yet it still was nine years before the Germans actually entered Rwanda. At some point the Germans, Belgians, and the British all fought for control of the Rwanda land, but it was agreed upon to continue the German rule. .
Since Rwanda is land-locked and was not explored by Europeans until 1894, Rwanda was not part of the large slave trade which took part in many other African countries. Although, they were affected by European Imperialism. Germany ruled Rwanda indirectly from 1885 to 1923. In 1923 Germany lost control to the Belgians after WWII, which was decided by the League of Nations. From this point on it was downhill for the country; social unrest and anti-government rebellion caused many problems for Rwanda, and eventually lead to a declared state of emergency. Seeing the on-going problems, the General Assembly voted to give Rwanda its independence in 1962. .
Currently in Rwanda the government is a republic, and their economy weak. The republic was established in 1978 in which a constitution was written and gave executive power to a president and a council of ministers to assist him. Although, since 1991 a prime minister has held supreme power. Also in 1991 the constitution was abridged, giving a five year term limit for the president and creating independent branches of the executive, legislative, and judicial powers. The country is split into twelve political divisions called prefectures. In 1994 civil war caused the government to collapse until the Tutsi dominated Rwandan Patriotic Front party took over.