There were sounds of transformation in the air. From the sounds of railroad cars to the telegraph tapping away, an era of industrialism had emerged. The Industrial Revolution began in the 1700s in England and seeped its way onto American soil by the end of the century. By its ending in 1860, it was clear that the Industrial Revolution altered the United States economically and socially. Economically, a new market emerged during the Industrial Revolution. Starting with small improvements toward agriculture, the farming market was created through the realization that a farmer could provide for his family through "raising crops for an expanding commercial market" (Visions, 254). The farmers saw the opportunity to use surplus food as profit and not just grow enough to feed their family. To adjust to the higher demands of their harvests, small improvements were invented to make production more efficient. Some of these improvements included the singing plow, horse-driven machines for wheat growing, and crank-powered churners. The purchasing of these goods led to a flourishing economy. "The rise of the American standard of living translated to our nation's populace enjoying more conveniences and amenities for a relatively low cost" (Dunn, P. 1). The cost of living was lowered due to the vast market of manufactured goods, such as furniture, crop tools, and textiles. Either people were selling or buying and it was a good time to be alive. With the growing demand in products and sales, more jobs were readily available to the people. Unfortunately, these jobs were the lowest wage possible and had people living in squalor. Citizens were working in factories in poor conditions. According to Dunn, the "investors and owners of the companies and factories were the ones who financially prospered during the Industrial Revolution, aside from the consumers who benefited from the advancements in technology and manufacturing" (Dunn, 2).