Cubism is a early 20th century style of painting which style emphasized the flat, two-dimensional surface of the picture plane. In Cubism the subject matter is broken up, analyzed, and reassembled in an abstracted form using geometric shapes without realistic detail . Cubism was developed by artists Pablo Picasso (Spanish, 1882-1973) and Georges Braque (French, 1882-1963) in 1907, who were later joined by Juan Gris (Spanish1887-1927). .
Picasso and Braque started the style when they followed the advice of Paul Cézanne, who in 1904 said artists should treat nature "in terms of the cylinder, the sphere and the cone." They were also inspired by African sculpture. There were 3 phases of Cubism, Facet Cubism, Analytical Cubism and Synthetic cubism.
Facet Cubism was a forerunner to analytical cubism and the first phase, the paintings, painted in the style contained no illusion of depth and used simple geometric shapes. .
Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907).
The painting Les Demoiselles d'Avignon by Pablo Picasso is an example of facet cubism; it's a brothel scene showing women with faceted and angular bodies. Two have African masks showing there influence. Today this painting is one of the most important paintings in modern art.
In 1909 Picasso and Braque developed Cubism into another phases, known as Analytical Cubism. because it analyzed the form of objects by shattering them into fragments spread out on the canvas. Both Picasso and Braque worked in a monochrome (one color) palette and used only brown, green or gray to analyze form without bright colors. In analytical cubism an object, seen from various points of view, could be reconstructed using particular separate "views" which overlapped and intersected.
Clarinet and Bottle of Rum on a Mantelpiece" by Georges Braque, 1911.
The painting Clarinet and Bottle of Rum on a Mantelpiece by Braque is an example of Analytic Cubism.