Cubism was an art movement that developed in the early 20th century. The term cubism acquired its name from the comments made by painter, Henri Matisse and critic Louis Vauxcelles, who described Georges Braque's 1908 work "Houses at L'Estaque" as resembling a bunch of cubes. Cubism has been called one of the most influential and revolutionary movements in art. Cubism was divided into two categories; analytical cubism and synthetic cubism. The cubism movement was developed by a handful of artists, the most popular, of which include Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, Juan Gris and Fernand Léger. .
Pablo Picasso was born in Malaga, Spain, in 1881. His father, an art teacher, recognized his son's talent at an early age. When he was only 16, Picasso had his own studio and had already mastered realistic techniques. He did not have much use for school, even though he was attending college. Picasso's personal style began to form from 1901 to 1904. This period was known was his blue period because Picasso often used analogous blue tones in his paintings. As he became more successful he began using less blue and more of a deep pinkish red which is called the rose period. The subjects of Picasso's are ranged from dark and depressing to up beat and happy, such as dancers, acrobats, and harlequins. In 1907, Picasso, with the aid of his friends, opened the door to cubism and other future abstract movements. Working with fellow painter, and friend, Georges Braque, Picasso experimented with geometric forms. The painting 'The Three Musicians' finished in 1921 was his major achievement using the cubism technique.
Georges Braque was born May 13, 1882, near Paris, France. By 1908, however, Braque had shifted his attention to the paintings of Paul Cezanne, who was reputed to have restored order and discipline to the extremes of artistic expression. Braque's interest in Cezanne's strangely distorted forms and unconventional perspective led him to paint in the manner that came to be called cubist.