SMOKING TEENAGERS: CAUSES AND CONSISTENCY.
Often, parents, teachers, and even celebrity role models, as well as advertisements, each play a vital role in the use of substances by American teenagers (DeFronzo & Pawlak, 1994). Also, emotional problems and physical and sexual abuse of children contribute strongly to teenagers trying and continuing to use drugs, especially alcohol and marijuana (Grady et al, 1996). Finally, more contributing factors include gender (DeFronzo & Pawlak), one's physical activities (Wolford & Swisher, 1996), urban or other location (Martin et al, 1991), and general risk-taking behavior most common in males (Yarnold, 1999; Martin & Pritchard, 1991). .
However, there exists some gender differences amongst Caucasians. Two studies determined slightly more females than male whites smoked (Andrine et al, 1994; Ralston, 1998), while two others determined white girls were more concerned about taking risks such as smoking than their male counterparts (DeFronzo & Pawlak, 1994; Yarnold), but are more likely to continue smoking into adulthood whereas boys are most likely to quit (Yarnold, 1999). .
White youths were more likely to smoke if there is no father in the house (DeFronzo & Pawlak, 1994; Grade et al, 1996; Yarnold, 1999), and the same is true for black males (Andrine, 1994). However, if the father is the head of a single-parent family, all children, males and females, of both white and black color are less likely to smoke anything, even if the father is a smoker (DeFronzo & Pawlak, 1994). Unfortunately, there was no study in this regard towards Latino children being raised by their father. One deterrent from smoking for specific genders of two groups, Latino males and African-American females, appeared to be religion (Andrine et al, 1994), though one-third of young Latino females still smoke cigarettes compared to only twelve percent of Latino males and one-quarter of African males were likely to smoke cigars (Grady et al, 1996).