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            For four years our country was split into two warring sections- the North and the South. This Civil War formed a new United States, with a stronger federal government, and a new definition of what freedom really is.
             I. Causes leading up to War.
             There were many causes leading up to the Civil War; most were highly complex and difficult to follow. The following were the key causes of the secession. .
             A. Economical Elements.
             The North was very industrialized; there were tons of factories and many railroads. Northern cities like New York and Philadelphia housed many of the nation's population. The South was mainly agriculture. The great plantations were very lucrative and the use of slaves had greatly enhanced profit. However, the South had very few railroads, and most of the land was rural, with little towns dotting the countryside. This difference caused some conflict during congress sessions.
             The Panic of 1857 was also a major contributor to the secession of the South. The Northern economy was in a slight downfall during the late 1850s. Many Southerners believed that if the Northern Economy failed completely, the south would also fall eventually. .
             The invention of the Cotton Gin, by Eli Whitney in the late 1790s, made slavery very affordable. Before the cotton gin, slaves had to take out the tiny cotton seeds out from the cotton balls. This took many slaves and a lot of time to complete. It was too expensive to keep all the slaves and make a lucrative enterprise, and it looked as though slavery was about to die out. However, after the invention of the cotton gin, which took the seeds out of the cotton, you only needed a few slaves to pick hundreds of pounds of cotton weekly. Slavery had been rejuvenated by this invention.
             B. Social and Political Elements.
             States Rights versus the Federal Government was probably the biggest reason why the southern states seceded. There were also many compromises that failed to accomplish anything.

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