The new millennium has brought serious threats to U. national security, according to the findings of the Hart-Rudman Commission. Of the 14 conclusions drawn by the commission, the increase to vulnerability of the U.S. homeland, by terrorists. Most surprising was the appearing lack of progress in defense from chemical, biological, nuclear or radiological (CBNR) attacks cyberterrorism . These findings are similar in nature with findings of other commissions, notably the Gilmore and Bremer commissions.
The solution recommended by Hart-Rudman was the creation of a new Cabinet-level National Homeland Security Agency (NHSA), vested with the ultimate authority for homeland defense. All sides agree that the essential problem of homeland security is the lack of coordination among a multitude of existing agencies, all competing for authority and budget and how to combat terrorism.
The root of this problem appears to be lack of unity of command. Multiple agencies have been assigned the same, or almost the same, authority to handle emergencies. Local and state authorities also have legal claims to emergencies because of their proximity to the problem. Again the question is raised, who's in charge? The answer is simple; "Everyone, but no one.".
The Hart-Rudman commission proposed a single agency, the National Homeland Security Agency (NHSA), to fix overall ounterterrorism responsibility, who is capable (in theory) of mounting an instant and seamless response to terrorism in all its aspects. Yet, the plan appears to be a long way from seamless. The proposed agency will require interdepartmental and interagency coordination and cooperation. This reconfiguration would need to determine new protocols, procedures and chains of command as they join into a unified effort. .
In retrospect, according to Leslie-Anne Levy, "Federal programs in place have no common standard against which they are measured".