Management is defined as the process of setting and achieving goals through the implementation of some basic management functions. These functions include planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. By using these key tools, one can create an organization as a whole consisting of unified parts acting in harmony to achieve goals, both successfully and proficiently. It is common knowledge to many managers and employees today that the very goal of one organization is to be as efficient and effective as possible. .
Planning, which can otherwise be known as the "first" function of management, places the groundwork in position for the other functions of management. Planning is a constant process that entails determining courses of action to respond to the questions of what should be done, by whom, where, when, and how. By planning properly, one will devise a proposal for the organizational activities necessary to reach the objectives one has set for themselves or their team. During the planning process, one needs to address a few straightforward questions: (1) What do we want to do?, (2) Where are we in relation to our goal?, (3) Which factors will help or delay us in reaching our goal?, and (4) What are the best alternatives available to us to reach our goal? Through planning, you will map out a course of action and assign the proper individuals, departments, and the entire organization to their respectful roles. .
The next step in this process is known as organization. By the end of this process, one will have a refined, harmonized, and formal-decision making structure within their organization. Within this aspect of the process, four distinct activities exist. The first being that one will need to determine what work activities need to be done to accomplish the organizational objectives. The next is to classify the type of work that is needed and to ensure that groups work into manageable units.