Somalia, also known as â€œThe Horn of Africaâ€, is located in the most eastern part of Africa and stretches from the Equator to the Red Sea. It is bordered by Ethiopia on the west, Kenya to its southwest, and Djibouti on the northwest. It is bounded by the Gulf of Aden to the north and the Indian Ocean to the east and the south.
Somaliaâ€™s total area is 246,000 square miles, which is slightly smaller than the size of Texas, and is basically split into four geographical regions. The first area is the northern coastal plain, or The Guban, which has a semiarid terrain. The second area is the northern highlands which consist of rugged mountain ranges that extend from the Guban region. This region contains the countryâ€™s highest mountain, Surad Ad, which has a peak elevation of 3,200 meters. The third region is the Oga region which extends from the highlands and hosts shallow plateau valleys, wadis, and broken mountains. These plateaus also continue to the Mudug Plain in central Somalia. The fourth and final region is The Somali Plateau, which is largely an agricultural land and contains other plateaus, such as the Haud.
Somaliaâ€™s capital, Mogadishu, with a population of over 1,200,000, is the countryâ€™s largest city and financial center. The city is accessible from Kenya and Ethiopia by roadways and is also home to Somaliaâ€™s international airport. Mogadishu came under intense battle in 1991 and 1992 and again in 1995 after peacekeeping missions left the country. In the last few years Mogadishu has now been renovated and restored back to the strong and historic city it once was. Historic buildings, once belonging to the Mosque of Fahr Ad-Din in 1269 and the Garesa Palace of the 19th century, have now been turn into a historic museum and a library.
Somalia has an arid, desert-like climate, with temperatures ranging from 86 to 104 degrees year round. The climate is influenced by