In Animal Farm, George Orwell uses satire, allegory and fable to construct his parallel rendition of the Russian revolution. Orwell uses these techniques to expose the brutality and suffering that can be, and is endured in the totalitarian regime of Animal Farm. In order to achieve his purpose Orwell uses the three major techniques extensively throughout the text to re-create the moments of Russia, in Animal Farm. .
Satire is the irony, sarcasm or caustic wit used to attack stupidity. In Animal Farm satire is used thoroughly throughout the book to expose the folly or vice of many characters. There are four types of satire: parody, exaggeration, reversal and analogy. In Chapter 2, paragraph 2, we can see and example of Squealer being satirized through exaggeration as he is said to be "a small fat pig named Squealer, with very round cheeks, twinkling eyes, nimble movements and a shrill voice". Squealers characterization here is also portrayed using allegory. Squealer, being the parallel of the Russian propaganda machine, is known as the most persuasive pig on the farm. On page 24, Paragraph 2, we experience squealer speaking for the first time and it is obvious that he is always trying to persuade the animals that what is happening politically on the farm, is correct. .
Animal Farm is a form of fable, using the animals to co-exist as human beings in Russia during 1905 to 1924. Napoleon, who represents Joseph Stalin, is one of the many pigs on the farm, but as mentioned on page 9, Napoleon was a less vivacious pig than Snowball (Leon Trotsky) and had a reputation of getting his own way, therefore giving him the foreground to take leadership of Animal Farm. Another obvious sign that this text is a fable is the fact that it has a moral.
The structure of Animal Farm is what we call a linear plot. This simply means that it travels in a straight line and time doesn't jump back and forward like in a retrogressing book.