Prior to the 18th century, in the United States and Western Europe, the majority of the population lived on farms. However, during the 1700's many remarkable new innovations came into being which caused an upheaval of sorts. "New forms of power, such as steam, replaced animal strength and human muscle. The factory system of making goods came into use. All of these advances affected patterns of living as well as working. Because society was so transformed, this time of great change is known as the Industrial Revolution." (Perry, Scholl, Davis 491) The Industrial Revolution brought upon many changes in society. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, the United States had established an agrarian society and soon, the Industrial Revolution would lead to rapid urbanization. There were many revolutions that took place within the Industrial Revolution. "A revolution in agriculture had paved the way for the Industrial Revolution." (491) Farmers were in dire need to increase production, which in turn would increase trade. "The Agricultural Revolution began in 1701, when Jethro Tull invented a mechanical drill for planting." (492) A Transportation Revolution broke out when traders and commuters needed better methods of transportation. The Transportation Revolution led to the building of canals and railroads. The poor conditions of roads led to the building of canals. It was far less costly to transport heavy goods by waterway than by land. (491) Railroads, at the time, were the fastest method of transportation on land. A trip that might take days would only be a few hours by train. Railroads would also aid in trafficking raw materials, machinery, and finished products from north to south in far less time. A demand for better methods of transportation would lead to more innovative designs in the field of transportation.